There are many variants of empiricism, positivism, realism and common sense being among the most commonly expounded.Exploring the Philosophical Underpinnings of Research: Relating Ontology and Epistemology to the Methodology and Methods of the Scientific, Interpretive,.Even if the generality problem can be solved, another problem remains for externalism.The series of justified beliefs begins with a belief which is justified, but not by virtue of being based on another justified belief.Once you have an idea of the research approach that you are going to take, you next need to think about a research strategy that will lead you to find answers to your research question.
Descartes presents an infallibilist version of foundationalism, and attempts to refute skepticism.In its simplest and most straightforward form, reliabilism maintains that whether or not a belief is justified depends upon whether that process is a reliable source of true beliefs.Any truth might, in principle, be knowable, although there might be unknowable truths.Forming beliefs on the basis of the testimony of an expert is likely to yield true beliefs, but forming beliefs on the basis of the testimony of compulsive liars is not.Morton, Adam. 2002. A Guide Through the Theory of Knowledge (Third Edition) Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
Ontology, Epistemology and Quantitative vs QualitativeAn encyclopedia of philosophy articles written by professional philosophers.We have a logical rule that says All humans are mortal and an assertion that Socrates is human and we deduce that Socrates is mortal.
Yet another possible candidate for the fourth condition of knowledge is indefeasibility.According to the indistinguishability skeptic, my senses can tell me how things appear, but not how they actually are.Hirschman, E. C. (1985). Primitive Aspects of Consumption in Modern American Society.
For example, we can see speaking English as a second lan-guage as a deficit.Ontology vs Epistemology Epistemology and ontology are two different branches of sociology.Accordingly, if there is no such thing as truth, then there can be no knowledge.This basis is referred to as the justification for that belief.However, there is an additional condition that we must add: belief B must itself be justified, since unjustified beliefs cannot confer justification on other beliefs.Memory allows us to know something that we knew in the past, even, perhaps, if we no longer remember the original justification.Since it was our solution to the regress problem that led us to foundationalism, and since none of the alternatives seem palatable, we might look for a flaw in the problem itself.
Only if I am inclined to believe something can I come to know it.Once you have begun an investigation, you have invested time in it.My research centers on two, inter-related research clusters in epistemology and philosophy of psychology.Since we are seeking a match between our mind and the world, justified beliefs are those which result from processes which regularly achieve such a match.The study of epistemology focuses on our means for acquiring knowledge and how we can.
Harvard Educational Review - San Jose State UniversityWhile causal accounts of knowledge are no longer thought to be correct, they have engendered reliabilist theories of knowledge, which shall be discussed in section 3b below.As such, a complete internalist account of justification must decide among the four.Note that we only perceive a very small part of the universe at any given moment, although we think that we have knowledge of the world beyond that which we are currently perceiving.
Free epistemology Essays and Papers - 123helpmeFor instance, suppose that I desire that I be given a raise in salary, and that I intend to do whatever I can to earn one.
Similarly, the pragmatism of William James can be viewed as a coherentist defense against skepticism.Of course, a justified belief will presumably be more likely to be true than to be false, and justified beliefs will presumably be more likely or more probable to be true than unjustified beliefs. (As we will see in section 3 below, the exact nature of the relationship between truth and justification is contentious.).That is, Gettier contended that while justified belief in a true proposition is necessary for that proposition to be known, it is not sufficient.
We can also distinguish between individual knowledge and collective knowledge.Is it possible that we do not know nearly as much as we think we do.
This philosophical approach signified a Philomath seeking to obtain greater knowledge through epistemology with the use of theology.But just as there are no signs that will allow us to distinguish between waking and dreaming, there are no signs that will allow us to distinguish between beliefs that are accurate and beliefs which are the result of the machinations of an evil demon.Ontology is the nature of reality (Hudson and Ozanne, 1988) and the epistemology can be defined as the relationship between the researcher and the reality (Carson et al., 2001) or how this reality is captured or known.It is at this stage that you would consider, for instance, whether your research is going to involve a survey, one or more case studies, some action research, participant observation, or some other methodology.The theoretical interpretation and significance of these linguistic issues remains controversial.
Nelson, Quee. 2007. The Slightest Philosophy, Indianapolis, IN: Dog Ear Publishing, 296 pages.Suppose that the clock on campus (which keeps accurate time and is well maintained) stopped working at 11:56pm last night, and has yet to be repaired.
Epistemology - Importance Of PhilosophyWhile the idea of an infinite regress might seem troubling, the primary ways of avoiding such a regress may have their own problems as well.Epistemology, Interpretivism, Ontology, Positivism, Qualitative Research, Research Philosophy.Dancy, Jonathan and Ernest Sosa (eds.), 1993. A Companion to Epistemology.
In other words, the proposition that the clock is working properly right now meets the following conditions: it is a false proposition, I do not realize that it is a false proposition, and if I had realized that it is a false proposition, my justification for my belief that it is 11:56 would have been undercut or defeated.